Category Archives: Slide shows

Power point slides of some interesting topics. Generally relevant to other 6 categories of the blog.

Revolutionary Press Theory

William Hachtens (1981) defined revolutionary press as a concept that is being propagated “in countries coping with revolutions against the existing government or foreign domination”. He suggests that the media in such countries appear to be in a transitional phase, divorced from normal state-media relationships”. [1]

Clement (1997) discusses “Revolutionary Press Theory on the foundation presented by Hachtens, as a concept of illegal and subversive communication utilizing the press and broadcasting to overthrow the existing government or to wrest control from alien or unwanted rulers. In other words, revolutionary press is the “press of the people” who believe strongly the government under which they live does not serve their interests and should be overthrown”. [2]

Hachtens also admitted that examples of this type of press are difficult to find and


Lenin in his work What is to be Done? (written in exile before the 1917 Revolution) proposed that the revolutionaries through the effective use of means of communication establish a nationwide, legal newspaper inside czarist Russia. Such a paper could obviously not advocate revolutionary goals, but its distribution could construct an efficient political machinery.

Lenin postulated that such a newspaper could:

-cover far-flung revolutionary organization
-mobilize the masses

Examples of vague nature can be identified in history. Like the underground press in Nazi-occupied France during World War II. The editors and journalists of this clandestine press literally risked their lives to convey the messages through papers and pamphlets. The history of anti-colonialist movements in the former third world is replete with such examples. Throughout the British empire, especially in West Africa, political dissidents published small newspapers often handwritten, that expressed grievances against the the British rulers, then encouraged nationalism, and finally advocated political independence.
Aspiring political leaders such as Azikiwe, Awolowo, Nkrumah, Kaunda and Kenyatta were all editors of these small political newspapers that informed and helped organize the budding political parties and nationalist movements. The British authorities were surprisingly tolerant, even though they disapproved of and sometimes acted against the publications and the editors.
Much in the Anglo-American political tradition supported these newspapers and the editors claimed the rights of British journalists.
In the post-independence years, radio broadcasting has become a valuable tool of revolutionary groups seeking to overthrow the fragile governments of developing nations. Anthony Sampson said that “the period of television and radio monopolies prove a passing phase, as we find ourselves in a much more open field of communications…” Personalized media with interactive capabilities are now playing revolutionary roles. They tend to challenge autocracies and despots around the globe. Dissident voices collaborate to challenge rulers that have been adamantly governing countries over decades.

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Posted by on January 30, 2013 in Research Hub, Slide shows


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First World and Third World Differs with Respect to ‘Attitudes’ Only

This presentation argues that the ONLY difference between the first world countries and the third world countries is that of ‘attitude’. The argument is supported by facts and startling statistics.

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Posted by on January 3, 2013 in Slide shows


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Exploring the Images in Arab Blogosphere

Exploring the Images in Arab Blogosphere

By Fakiha Hassan Rizvi 

Introduction and Background:

The word ‘blog’ is a contraction of two words, Weband ‘Log’. The Oxford Dictionary defines the word ‘weblog’ as a frequently updated website consisting of personal observations, excerpts from other sources, typically run by a single person and usually with hyperlinks to other websites. It can also be referred to as an online journal or diary.

Walker.R (2008) defines ‘blogging’ as a cumulative process as the information shared is always placed in a broader context and bloggers have complete control over the content that they want to share unlike other means of communication (print, broadcast). [1]

Brans & Jacobs (2006) while discussing the ‘Uses of Blogs‘ elaborated the concept of ‘News Blogging’ as a “practice of covering the news through blogging- either by reporting originally or by providing opinion on the news that has been reported in the news sources”. [2]

Barlow (2008) explained the working dimension of blogs, he argued that the words on the screens become movers of judgement, all supposedly equal, though there are plenty of means of heightening their exposure. [3]

Pole (2010) discussed the influence of blogging networks (blogosphere) on political communication. As per his argument, blogging has altered political discourse by changing ‘how’ and ‘when’ people discuss politics. He further supports this by explaining the enhanced level of interactivity while blogging that enables dialogue among bloggers and readers leading to an exchange of ideas. The ideas can then be manifested in the form of an ‘action’, ‘policy’ or ‘mobilization’. Therefore, political communication has no boundaries with regards to ‘scope’ and ‘magnitude’ in the blogosphere. [4]

The Arab uprisings and protests starting from 2010 used blogs as an important source for disseminating information that was denied any other outlet (mainstream news media). However, some argue that the role of ‘social networks’ and ‘blogs’ in triggering the waves of protests around Middle East is overstated. Whether less or more, the impact of social media did resonate and there are no differences over this. Downing (2010) marks 2003 as the year during which Arab bloggers/citizen journalists started to gain prominence. However, it was only after 2005 that these bloggers “emerged as important leaders of social movements.” [5]

This is the reason that Murphy (2011) labels blogging as a predominant form of written protest in the Arab world and the Internet as the new “clandestine printing press.” [6]

Arab Blogosphere

Arab Blogosphere

Literature Review:

This is a concise research study which aims at revealing the images in the Arab Blogosphere, pertinent to four key issues of Middle East during 2012:

  1. Morsi as the President of Egypt
  2. Syrian Massacre
  3. Protests against anti-Islam film in the Arab World
  4. Recent conflict between Gaza and Israel

‘Three’ blogs were considered for this research study. The images that reflected the issues mentioned above were studied. ‘Image analysis’ is very significant for analyzing opinions being communicated through the web. 

Image source: Encyclopedia of Social Media Movement by John D.H.Downing (2010)

Image source: Encyclopedia of Social Media Movement by John D.H.Downing (2010)

It becomes all the more significant in the case of ‘blogs’ as readers are hooked by the images accompanying the posts. Sometimes they even get a clue of the entire post by viewing images. In case of the Arab world, there are certain blogs that share images being submitted by natives belonging to different countries in the Arab countries. In this way the blog becomes ‘a portrait of the current happenings’ in the Middle East.

It’s time to take a look at the images in the Arab Blogosphere


[1] Walker. J. Rettberg (2008), Blogging.

[2] Jacobs J. & Brauns A. (2006), Uses of Blogs.

[3] Barlow A. (2008) Blogging America: The New Public Sphere

[4] Pole A. (2010) Blogging the Political: Politics and Participation in a networked society.

[5] Downing. J. D. H (2010) Encyclopedia of Social Media Movements

[6] Murphy. C. Emma (2011) The New Arab Media: Technology, Image, Perception


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Posted by on December 8, 2012 in Research Hub, Slide shows


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Behind the Big News Propaganda and the Council on Foreign Relations

A review of the first 15 minutes of this documentary: (click on the link below to watch)

Disclose.tvBehind the Big News: Propaganda and the CFR

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Posted by on November 3, 2012 in Slide shows


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Print Media in Pakistan

The major developments and factors pertinent to the advent and evolution of print media in Pakistan (since its creation). While flipping through the pages of history, one can identify a close synergistic relationship between the print media and Pakistan movement. Print media provided the major driving force for national cohesion and served as a mouth piece for the Muslims of India. It is for this reason that the rise of Print media in Pakistan will be analysed in light of Benedict Anderson’s theory of Print culture. On the other hand, some of the stances adopted by major print media groups in Pakistan related to different issues will also be discussed. The presentation also aims at highlighting the future prospects, various economic, technological and political factors affecting this old, word dependent form of media.

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Posted by on November 2, 2012 in Slide shows


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Pak-US ties

This presentation was compiled by me and it was the requirement of my National and International Affairs course at University. The slides discuss in detail the various aspects of Pak-Us ties.

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Posted by on November 2, 2012 in Slide shows


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